Crystal Units

The Principle and Structure of Quartz Chip

Quartz is silicon dioxide which is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. Its appearance is similar to a hexagonal crystal system formed by a single crystal structure. The single crystal of quartz structure has the characteristics of piezoelectric effect when pressure is applied in certain directions of the crystal; vertical direction of the force will generate an electrical potential. Relatively speaking when an electric field is applied to certain axial directions of the quartz crystal, vibration will occur in other directions. (As shown in down left Fig.1)


The Cutting Process of Quartz Chip

According to different application fields and operating temperature requirements, there are many different types of quartz cutting angles, such as AT, BT, CT, DT, NT and other different cutting methods. Different cutting directions have different elastic constants, piezoelectric constant, and dielectric constant, and these constants exhibit different oscillation and temperature characteristics in the application of quartz components. (The cutting simulation of quartz structure is shown in the above right picture)

The Temperature Characteristics of Quartz Chip

Most quartz crystal products are used for reference frequency or frequency control components on electronic circuits, so the frequency and working environment temperature characteristics are a very important parameter; in fact, excellent frequency and temperature characteristics are a main reason of using quartz crystal products as frequency components. With proper parameter and design, quartz crystal products can easily meet the frequency error range of parts-per-million level.

(The temperature characteristics of the quartz wafer are shown in the figure below)


(Please click this link to reach more detail)